Psoriasis, or scaly ringworm is a chronic disease that affects the skin and its appendages: hair and nails. Characterized by periods of worsening condition (relapses) and temporary well-being, when the symptoms become less. This disease is not contagious and the patient is not dangerous for the others. Because the appearance of psoriasis is not associated with the microorganisms.
Psoriasis occurs more frequently in the age of 15-45 years. Him the most are the people with clear skin. In developed countries, the number of patients of psoriasis reaches 2-4% of the population. He suffers from every 25th inhabitant of the earth in all the continents.
This problem deals with a large number of medical institutions. Then the psoriasis has been recognized as the most studied disease. But this disease is not before the end of the study. Officially it is considered incurable and causes a lot of problems.
Psoriasis is caused by its own cells the immune of the body. Rise up from the lower layers of the skin at the top, causing inflammation, proliferation of epidermal cells and the formation of small capillaries.
Manifestations of psoriasis on the skin are very different. Very often the disease results in the appearance of red spots – psoriatic platelets. They are dry to the touch, which rise above the surface of the skin and are covered with white flowers.
The disease is divided into two large groups: pustular psoriasis and not pustulous psoriasis.
Not pustulous psoriasis
Also highlight these types of psoriasis
For the gravity show these forms of psoriasis
To date there is no single answer to the question: "why is it the psoriasis?". Scientists put forward a number of theories.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease. In the underlying malfunction of the immune system. The immune cells T-killers and T-helpers, which has the function of protecting the body from viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells, for some reason penetrate the upper layers of the skin. Here you produce mediators of inflammation – substances that "launch" the inflammatory response. The result becomes reinforced division of skin cells and their reproduction (proliferation).
Psoriasis is a disease that is caused by a violation of growth, division and maturation of epithelial cells - keratinocytes. The result of these changes in the skin becomes the attack of the immune cells T lymphocytes and macrophages for the sick of the cells of the skin.
Doctors have noted a series of factors that can cause the appearance of the disease. Of course, often the psoriasis occurs if a body acts once some of these conditions.
Psoriasis is a systemic disease that affects not only the skin and nails. He suffers from the joints, tendons and the vertebral column, immune system, nervous and endocrine. Often affects the kidneys, the liver, the thyroid. The patient feels a strong weakness, suffer from chronic fatigue and depression. In relation to such a complex action on the body, the disease in recent years has decided to call of the psoriasis disease.
But the main manifestations of the disease occur on the skin in the beings. The name "bow of ringworm" quite conveys with precision the symptoms of psoriasis. The first manifestations are often papules pink or bright red to the correct round shape, covered with scales – causing psoriatic plaques. They are arranged symmetrically, mainly in the extensor surfaces, back, and scalp. But it can affect any type of skin and genital mucous membranes. Their size from a few millimeters, in the initial stages, up to ten centimeters and over.
Depending on the characteristics of the eruption, and to share these forms of psoriasis:
In addition, there are forms of eruption, when its elements have a view of the rings, arches and garlands of flowers, the geographic maps with the jagged edges.
Papules are covered with flowers, which can be easily removed. It is formed from dead cells of the epidermis. Psoriatic platelets begin to be covered with scales with the centre, then the plaque spreads to the outside. Its loose and light-of-view due to the fact that the dead cells riddled with spaces full of air. Around items can form the pink ring is the stage of inflammation, a zone of growth of the platelets. The skin around the elements of the eruption has not changed.
Under the patina is detected in smooth glossy bright red color of the surface. This blood capillaries with thin walls, covered with a thin film. They become visible due to thinning of the upper layers of the skin. The normal structure of the skin is broken due to the fact that the keratinocyte cells do not mature and do not have the normal time to differentiate.
The scalp psoriasis is a psoriatic platelets, which are much elevated above the surrounding skin. They are densely covered with scales that resemble dandruff. When the hair is killed. Rashes may be not only the hair, but smooth on the skin, on the neck and behind the ears. These changes are explained in the active division of the keratinocytes in the affected areas
The psoriasis stop palms and causes a thickening of the horny layer of the skin in these areas of the body. The skin becomes thick, rough. Often permeate the cracks. This is caused by an intensive division of cells that multiply to 8 times faster than normal, but they are not removed on time with the surface of the skin.
Psoriasis of the nails offers a variety of symptoms. But the highest value are the two main types of the defeat of the nail plate:
Signs and symptoms of psoriasis depend on the stage of the disease, which follow cyclically throughout the year. So the majority of patients had a "winter" kind of the illness, when aggravation falls in autumn-winter. Improvement of the state in the summer is due to the fact that the ultraviolet rays that the sun has a therapeutic effect. But some patients suffer from "years" type.
Show how the phase of the current of psoriasis:
Every body is different and reacts differently to the disease. Then the rash can be very varied. This explains the great variety of forms and types of psoriasis.
However, most people symptoms of psoriasis are similar. It is the spots of color – red psoriatic plaque, increasing to 1-3 mm above the level of the healthy skin. Their appearance is due to the fact that the cells of the superficial layer of the skin – keratinocytes, divide actively, and not being able to mature and become real in epithelial cells. As A result of that reinforcement the pathological growth of the individual areas of the skin thicken. This takes place under the influence of what the cells immune to release chemicals that cause inflammation of the skin under the influence.
The spots are red in color. And if you remove the upper scales of the psoriasis plaques, and its surface begins to be covered with blood dew. This is due to the fact that under the influence of T-lymphocytes and immune cells, dendritic happens reinforced the formation of new blood vessels underneath the plate. They have fairly thin walls. This, and the cause of bleeding of the psoriasis plaques the minimum damage.
Sometimes through these vessels filter the lymph and exudate and inflammatory. When the crust on the plate becomes thick, yellowish. Its surface to feel moist.
From above, the platelets can be covered in gray, black, or yellow, flowering, that has the appearance of wax. So they got the title – "the wax lake". This skin dead epithelial cells, the rejection of which is interrupted, and accumulate on the surface of the affected area of the skin.
The stains break up more feel warm, compared to the rest of the skin, can grow to a large size. Often the patient feels a strong itching in this place. This is due to the fact that, against the background of an inflammatory process occurs, a cascade of neuro-reflex responses, and an allergic reaction.
Another kind of elements – papules. These are small elements of rash, shock. The size is approximately 1 mm. In the middle there is a cavity full of content. Often found in the knee and elbow joints. Remain even in the periods in which the disease withdraws.
The first plaques occur in those places, where the skin is more dry and in contact with the house cleaning and detergents – in open areas of the arms, the neck. They can be on all areas of the body: on the scalp, face, body, genitals, buttocks, legs. Unlike fungal diseases, psoriatic precipitation does not occur in the armpits and the natural folds, where the skin is more moist and greasy. In some forms of the disease only appears a couple of plates, which do not increase in size. When palmar-plantar forms of defeat are only found in these areas.
During the exacerbations, the elements of the eruption gradually grow in width and merge with nearby platelet. In periods of improve (remission) spots begin to lighten with the means. They gradually acquire a view of the rings and can disappear altogether. After plaques on the body remains track – pigmentation. It can be significantly lighter or darker than surrounding areas of skin. After the man abbronzerà, the color of the skin is usually aligned.